Truck engines have changed a bit since the first automobiles hit the road, but the basic premise for gasoline engines is the same: you need fuel, oxygen, and a spark to make it work. At the fundamental level, fuel is delivered by injecting it via a calculated burst of a fine spray into the combustion chamber of an engine.
Initially, the way to mix the fuel with air was through a carburetor, patented in With the updated needs of catalytic converters, carburetors were no longer efficient. Today, we use fuel injection, and there are two main ways to make this mixture happen in an internal combustion engine — direct injection or port injection. Direct injection has been around for quite some time, used in fighter aircraft in World War II.
It is the fuel delivery method where fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. Port fuel injection has been around since the s and means that fuel is delivered to the engine directly into the intake manifold or cylinder head. Fuel is sprayed on the valve, which then uses the heat from the valve to further atomize the fuel. The difference is how they atomize the fuel: direct injection uses very high pressure and is sprayed directly into the spark plug area to ignite.
That reduction in heat has two benefits. Video: Chevrolet Silverado HD. The biggest advantage of port fuel injection is it naturally cleans the valves with every spray of fuel. One disadvantage of port injection is that fuel can puddle and be absorbed by surrounding areas, making it harder to control. We have applied all the expertise we have developed through generations of direct-injection designs to the all-new 6.
See all comments. The truck parts and service aftermarket weighs in on how the COVID pandemic is affecting their businesses and fleet parts departments.
Bridgestone Americas announced plans to restart its North American commercial tire plants as well as its North American Firestone Industrial Products and Firestone Building Products manufacturing facilities on April It is no secret: engines are the workhorse of any truck. Keeping truck engines running at maximum efficiency should be the goal of any budget-savvy fleet manager.The EcoBoost engine promises performance and fuel efficiency, and it delivers.
Fuel pump voltage boosters aid fuel delivery for modded engines, and fuel injectors that atomize better will improve your mpgs. In the evolution of engines, Ford has begun moving away from port injection and started to embrace direct injection. This guide will go over everything you need to know about direct injection Ford EcoBoost engines. First, we had carburetors. Then came along throttle body injection.
Port injection followed soon after and was a major success. Nowadays, most manufacturers are adopting the latest fuel delivery technique of direct injection, particularly for turbocharged applications. Albeit, direct injection is not something particularly new to the automotive world. The concept has been around for decades and has been widely used in the diesel engine market for quite some time. In regards to the F, the introduction of the EcoBoost engines back in simultaneously featured the first use of direct injection in the F truck lineup.
When port fuel injection first became widely adopted, it was a big deal. It was a major step forward in terms of fuel delivery, and also for automotive electronics. It signified the fundamental computer-controlled basis we see applicable to all the Fs of today. Gone are the mechanical cables and linkages and instead we now have an engine control unit ECU making thousands of calculations a second to operate the engine.
With the electronic injectors controlled by a computer, fuel delivery could be more precise than it ever has been before and forms a strong argument as to why engines are as reliable and capable as they are today.
Direct injection takes everything port injection has to offer and improves on it. Better power and fuel efficiency are just a few advantages of direct injection. We'll examine it shortly. Port injection is pretty simple. Operating at pressures between psi, one end of the fuel injector is connected to a rail, which supplies a constant stream of gas.
The other end, the nozzle, is screwed into the intake manifold runner. When commanded to by the ECU, the injector activates and sprays a mist of fuel into the manifold for example, at RPM, the injector is cycling approximately 17 times per second.
When the intake valve opens, the mixture of air and fuel whooshes into the chamber where it is then ignited. For example, even though the fuel and air mixture does not stay for long in the intake manifold runner, it is still there for sufficient time for some of the heavier fuel to drop onto the bottom of the runner and consequently not make it into the combustion chamber. Multiply this by each cylinder and the number of intake valve events over the course of a mile and there is a noticeable effect on fuel economy.
Direct injection eliminates the middleman that is the intake runner and instead sprays the fuel directly into the combustion chamber. The fuel injector is still connected to the main rail, but the nozzle is no longer screwed into the lower manifold. Because fuel is now sprayed directly into the chamber, there is no fuel wasted like there was with port injection, and the fuel events can be further controlled with the precision that has never been seen before.
Spraying the fuel directly into the chamber lowers the temperature allowing for a higher compression ratio, which is better for combustion and makes more power. Direct injectors operate at pressures of several thousand PSI, which produces optimal fuel atomization to mix with the incoming air charge.
Direct injection, in conjunction with the turbochargersare a major reason the 2. Because the fuel is no longer entering past the intake valve, the fuel cannot act as a cleaning agent as it does with port injection. Thus, some early model EcoBoosts experienced idling problems as carbon built up on the intake valve, most noticeable upon a cold start where the very rich mixture needed for a cold start would wash down the cylinder walls, decreasing burn efficiency and increasing emissions and carbon buildup.
Once the engines were brought to operating temperature, the problem would disappear, and thus made it very baffling for many owners. The 3. This second generation 3.
By utilizing both methods of fuel delivery, we get the best of both worlds. Port injection will be used for cold starts and low loads whereas the direct injection system will take over once the engine has reached operating temperature or is under high load.This page is for personal, non-commercial use. We get it. Ads can be annoying. But ads are also how we keep the garage doors open and the lights on here at Autoblog - and keep our stories free for you and for everyone. And free is good, right?
If you'd be so kind as to whitelist our site, we promise to keep bringing you great content. Thanks for that.
EcoBoost F-150 Direct Injection Explained
And thanks for reading Autoblog. You still haven't turned off your adblocker or whitelisted our site. It only takes a few seconds. If it's direct-injected and sold in America, it's on this list.
Jeremy Korzeniewski. Share 0 Comments. Direct injection is exciting technology in that it allows car enthusiasts to have their cake and eat it too. How so? By both improving fuel efficiency and increasing horsepower.
This being the case, it's not surprising that automakers from all ends of the world are embracing the tech and selling their resultant wares right here in the U. While Ford has made lots of noise as of late with its so-called EcoBoost power-adding system, the Blue Oval is hardly the first automaker to offer direct injection to the masses, even with forced induction.
For a complete rundown of all current passenger cars sold in America with direct injection engines, our friends over at Winding Road have compiled what looks to be a pretty complete list in their latest issue.
Expect this to be a rapidly expanding list as more and more engines are fitted with direct injection to yield greater fuel efficiency, lower emissions, and more power. Sign in to post.
Our experts at Tristar not only know how to re manufacture engines, but they love to write as well! Follow us on Instagram and Facebook for promotions and customer showcases!
James Kostuchowski is a senior account manager at Tri Star Engines. Jim has been with the company over a decade and was even previously employed at one of our largest competitors.
His sales territory has ranged from all of Wisconsin to parts of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In his free time he enjoys attending car shows with his Grabber Orange Ford Mustang and Cadillac CTS, collecting vintage signs and gas pumps and working with investments. Direct Injection and Port Injection use computer-controlled electric injectors to spray fuel into the engine. The difference is where they spray the fuel. Direct injection has the injectors mounted in the cylinder head and the injectors spray fuel directly into the engine cylinder.
It then mixes with the air. Only air passes through the intake manifold runners and past the intake valves with direct injection. There are advantages and disadvantages of both systems.
The advantages of direct injection is better fuel economy, less emissions, and better performance. It delivers fuel more precisely to increase better combustion with more power while maintaining better fuel economy and lowering emissions. The big disadvantage of direct injection is carbon buildup on the backside of the intake valves. This can throw a computer code, and could result with an engine miss or a ignition failure.
The other disadvantage of direct injection is cost. The injector tips are mounted right into the combustion chamber, so the materials of the injector have to be very good quality.
High pressure is needed to inject fuel directly into the cylinders which means expensive high-pressure fuel pumps are needed. They are typically mechanically driven from the engine, which adds to the complexity. The main reason we are seeing vehicles on the market with direct injection, is tighter fuel economy standards. Port injection sprays the fuel into the intake ports where it mixes with the incoming air. Port injection systems are much cheaper to manufacture.
Port injection systems typically operate in the 30 to 60 PSI range, which is dramatically lower than direct injection systems. Support systems such as fuel pumps are also cheaper, because fuel pressures are lower. Port injection systems spray the fuel on the backside of the intake valve and the fuel has to wait till the valve opens. The fuel sprayed on the backside of the intake valves, also cleans the valves.
The injectors are often mounted in the intake manifold runners and the fuel sits in the runners until the intake valve opens and the mixture is pulled into the engine cylinder.
I can see a time when port injection systems will be completely replaced by direct injection. As fuel costs increase, the difference in manufacturing cost between port and direct injection systems will diminish. As of right now, both systems are available on new vehicles, depending on the model you select. Check out our direct injection engine here! Post Date: August 31, Our experts at Tristar not only know how to re manufacture engines, but they love to write as well!
Now through September get a free T shirt and hat with every online engine order! Subscribe to our mailing list. High performance newsletter and promotional emails OE newsletter and promotional emails.
Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram.Half of the U. Ford currently is the dominant player with what it calls dual-fuel, high-pressure direct injection DI and lower-pressure port injection PI.
Applications include turbocharged and naturally aspirated V-6 and V-8 gasoline engines—four in all—ranging in size from 2. The F Raptor flying pickup and the GT supercar both are powered by new 3. Ground-bound Fs also rely heavily on this technology with a dual-fueled base 3. Before delving into the fine points of teaming PI with DI, a short primer is in order. Step one is atomizing the liquid to fine droplets, achieved by forcing gasoline pressurized by a pump through tiny injector orifices.
A study by Hitachi engineers revealed that fuel pressurized to psi and injected through orifices ranging from 0. Vaporization follows atomization. Here, the fine fuel droplets go through a liquid-to-gas phase change, becoming a vapor that can be mixed with air and ignited by the spark plug. With PI, the air flowing through the intake manifold is cooled before it reaches the combustion chamber. With DI, the cooling benefit occurs within the chamber itself. Each strategy has pluses and minuses.
PI is handy for naturally aspirated engines because cooling the incoming air increases its density and power-producing potential. This upstream location provides ample time for full vaporization to occur. One downside is that fuel droplets sometimes are deposited on the intake port walls, upsetting the intended fuel-air ratio. With DI, the chance of detonation—premature ignition of the fuel and air mixture—is diminished because the phase-change cooling effect takes place during the compression stroke just before ignition.
Ford raised peak torque by 30 lb-ft in its new 3. There are downsides to DI. A DI system is more expensive because the pressure required to squirt fuel into the combustion chamber is 50 to times higher than with PI, and the higher-pressure pump imposes parasitic losses.
Direct injectors tend to be noisy.
Carbon deposits—both on the backsides of the intake valves and on tailpipes—are service issues for some DI users. These carbon particles are similar to but smaller in size than those spit out by diesel engines. Toyota, for example, fires both injectors during low to medium load and rpm conditions—in other words, during normal driving.
This raises the density of the incoming charge without boosting and flushes carbon deposits off the intake valves. During high load and rpm circumstances, when maximum combustion chamber cooling is needed because detonation is more likely, DI handles all the fuel delivery. Ford uses PI alone at idle and at low rpm for smooth, quiet, and efficient engine operation. As rpm and load increase, fuel delivery becomes a programmed blend of PI and DI.
Dowding and his Ford engineering colleague Stephen Russ stress that carbon deposits on tailpipes and intake valves have never been an issue in their DI engines. The dual-fuel strategy gives engineers an additional key to turn as they strive to unlock more energy from each drop of gas. As lessons are learned and component costs fall, expect more makers to adopt this approach to fanning their fires.
Buyer's Guide. Type keyword s to search.There have been several significant shifts in automotive fuel delivery over the past half-decade or so. The first shift started with manufacturers gradually adopting electronic fuel injection through the s.
EFI popularity spiked and completely eliminated carburetors from production vehicles by the s. Direct Injection systems slowly became more common in the mids, and have enjoyed a boom in popularity in the twenty-teens. On the flip side of that, the very nature of direct-injection is that fuel spends a minimal amount of time out of the injector before being ignited.
As a result, much higher injection pressures are used in DI. That gives you a finer mist of fuel, making it easier for the fuel to vaporize.
A secondary reason for the elevated delivery pressures is that if you are injecting into the cylinder on the compression stroke, you have some serious pressure to overcome. The Toyota D4-S system is a solid example of how dual injection has been implemented on a large scale. While slightly different that other systems, like the one employed on the Gen-3 Coyote engines, the principles of the system are the same.
As you inject fuel, regardless of the method of injection even in carburetion there is a cooling effect that happens to the charge mixture. That is to say, it cools the air around it, as it happens. That effect allows more air in, more fuel to be utilized and ultimately more power to be made. With direct-port injection, you lose that pre-intake-valve cooling, but you gain another different, yet highly beneficial type of cooling within the cylinder.
Best of Both Worlds With both methods offering benefits, it seems like the only logical thing to do would be to use both of them, right? As you get into the higher-load and higher-RPM areas where you really want to prevent knock, it switches to purely direct injection.
Fenske gives a high-level overview of the employment strategies of dual injection. By playing to each methods strengths in the load and RPM map, you increase overall efficiencies without any sacrifices. That provides a more stable combustion and a more efficient combustion with the more even distribution of air and fuel. This image from a borescope shows the back of a port-injected intake valve aftermiles. Note the distinct lack of excessive carbon build up, thanks to the cleaning and cooling effect the injector spray offers.
Fenske explains how the blow-by that is fed back into the intake tract — along with oil mist from excessive crank windage — by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation system, along with the Exhaust Gas Recirculation system can cause the dreaded carbon build up on the back of intake valves.
This has not gone unnoticed by the OEMs, though none have publicly stated as much.You may have noticed a growing trend in new vehicles being made today, which is direct and port injection.
You may be asking yourself what is the difference between direct injection vs port injection and which is better? This guide is designed to help you understand the differences between direct and port injection and which you want to get on your next vehicle. Why do new cars use both direct and port injection?
VIDEO: Why Manufacturers Are Using Both Port And Direct Injection
New cars use both direct and port injection because it limits the amount of carbon buildup that would typically occur with a direct injection engine. Engines that use direct and port injection allows the engine to get the advantages of both injection technologies while removing the downsides of using direct injection only. One area that direct injection only engines have weak points is in the area of carbon buildup. This can lead to carbon build up over time which can be an expensive repair job.
That is why some vehicle manufacturers have started making engines with direct and port injection. They can take advantage of the benefits of using direct injection technology in their engine while also helping prevent carbon build-up with port injection. Depending on the capabilities of the engine it may use direct injection in conjunction with port injection or one or the other.
Direct injection is better suited for wide open throttle to help reduce engine knock and provide more horsepower. Port injection is used under low loads to help use less gasoline. Because the fuel is being injected directly into the engine cylinder it can use less fuel to ignite during the combustion process. This typically means that an engine equipped with direct injection will get better gas mileage than an engine equipped with port injection.
Direct injection is the newer technology and why it is also a factor in why newer cars may get higher gas mileage. With port injection, the fuel injectors are positioned on the air intake leading to each cylinder of your engine.
Direct Injection vs. Port Injection
As your engine sucks in air to later be compressed your fuel injectors will spray a fine mist of fuel that will eventually mix with the ambient air as it gets sucked into your engine. This allows the air and fuel enough time to mix with each other as they are eventually sucked into the cylinder wall. That air and fuel mixture would then be compressed and then ignited to complete the combustion process of your engine. Port injection is the other of the two injection technologies and has been around for quite some time.
With direct injection technology, the fuel injector is positioned in the engine cylinders which allow the engine computer to be able to adjust the fuel based on how the engine is operating. Under low loads, the engine can use less fuel to propel itself down the road effectively reducing fuel consumption. Under high loads, the engine is also able to run efficiently by using a small amount of fuel to help with the combustion process.
Direct injection actually works the best under high RPM high load situations. While the fuel in a direct injection engine may not be mixed as well as on a port injection engine direct injection will allow the engine computer to better be able to handle whatever situation it is presented with. If your engine is running lean it can adjust quickly to help reduce the chances of engine knock.
Because the engine is able to better use its fuel it will typically be able to obtain a higher fuel economy than an engine with port injection. However, there are many factors besides the type of fuel injection that will go into how many miles per gallon your car will get. Direct injection can also help prevent engine knock. Because direct injection technology is designed to be high compression engines it is the best fuel injection technology for forced induction engines.
One downside to direct injection only engines is that they can be susceptible to carbon buildup on the intake valves of the engine.
Understanding Direct and Port Injection in Engines
Cleaning the carbon buildup in your engine is not a cheap job either. Most shops have to walnut blast the air intakes of the engine to be able to remove the carbon buildup. Walnut blasting your engine intake can cost thousands of dollars because of the time associated with disassembling the engine and the care it takes to remove the carbon buildup. Port injection shoots fuel into your air intake port that is then sucked into the piston to provide fuel for the combustion stroke of your engine.
The benefit of port injection is that it allows the air to mix with the fuel being injected evenly before it is fed into the engine cylinder. When the air and fuel mixture is evenly mixed it allows the combustion process to burn all of the fuel that is injected into the engine cylinder reducing carbon buildup from unburnt fuel. With direct injection, the fuel has less time to mix with the air coming into the cylinder which can cause some hot spots to form inside the engine cylinder.
Hot spots are not good because they can cause one area to get much hotter than the other surrounding areas instead of evenly heating the engine cylinder walls.